The world population is ageing at an unprecedentedly rapid pace and Southeast Asia is no exception. In the societies with more older people, more patients with brain injury, e.g. stroke, can be seen, as older people more often suffer from chronic conditions that carry a higher risk of brain injury such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Brain injury is one of the main reasons why people need long-term care including rehabilitation. As populations age, the demand for long-term care rises. This study assesses if Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Viet Nam are ready for the increasing demand for rehabilitation. The study includes an assessment of the feasibility of introducing Japanese-style rehabilitation and Japanese-style capacity building of healthcare professionals in these three countries. It uses a variety of case studies and suggests some policy recommendations for developing rehabilitation systems.